Five-Year Plans (FYPs) are centralized and integrated national economic programs. Joseph Stalin implemented the first Five Year Plan in the Soviet Union in 1928. Most communist states and several capitalist countries subsequently have adopted them. China and India both continue to use FYPs, although China renamed its Eleventh FYP, from 2006 to 2010, a guideline (guihua), rather than a plan (jihua), to signify the central government’s more hands-off approach to development. India launched its First FYP in 1951, immediately after independence under socialist influence of first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
The First Five-Year Plan was one of the most important because it had a great role in the launching of Indian development after Independence. Thus, it strongly supported agriculture production and it also launched the industrialization of the country (but less than the Second Plan, which focused on heavy industries). It built a particular system of mixed economy, with a great role for the public sector (with an emerging welfare state), as well as a growing private sector (represented by some personalities as those who published the Bombay Plan).
The concept of economic planning in India is derived from the Russia (then USSR). India has launched 12 five year plans so far. First, five year plan was launched in 1951. Now the present NDA government has stopped the formation of five-year plans. So 12th five year plan would be called the last five year plan of India.
1. First Five Year Plan:
I. It was made for the duration of 1951 to 1956.
II. It was based on the Harrod-Domar model.
III. Its main focus was on the agricultural development of the country.
IV. This plan was successful and achieved a growth rate of 3.6% (more than its target)
2. Second Five Year Plan:
I. It was made for the duration of 1956 to 1961.
II. It was based on the P.C. Mahalanobis Model.
III. Its main focus was on the industrial development of the country.
IV. This plan was successful and achieved a growth rate of 4.1%
3. Third Five Year Plan:
I. It was made for the duration of 1961 to 1966.
II. This plan is called ‘Gadgil Yojna’ also.
III. The main target of this plan was to make the economy independent and to reach self active position of take off.
IV.Due to china war, this plan could not achieve its growth target of 5.6%
4. Plan Holiday:
I. The duration of plan holiday was from 1966 to 1969.
II. The main reason behind the plan holiday was the Indo-Pakistan war & failure of the third plan.
III. During this plan annual plans were made and equal priority was given to agriculture its allied sectors and the industry sector
5. Fourth Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was from 1969 to 1974.
II. There were two main objectives of this plan i.e. growth with stability and progressive achievement of self reliance.
III. During this plan the slogan of “Garibi Hatao” is given during the 1971 elections by Indira Gandhi.
IV. This plan failed and could achieve the growth rate of 3.3% only against the target of 5.7%.
6. Fifth Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was 1974 to 1979.
II. In this plan top priority was given to agriculture, next came to industry and mines.
III. Overall this plan was successful which achieved the growth of 4.8% against the target of 4.4%.
IV. The draft of this plan was prepared and launched by the D.P. Dhar. This plan was terminated in 1978.
7. Rolling Plan:
This plan was started with an annual plan for 1978-79 and as a continuation of the terminated fifth-year plan.
8. Sixth Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was from 1980 to 1985.
II. The basic objective of this plan was poverty eradication and technological self-reliance.
III. It was based on investment yojna, infrastructural changing and trend to the growth model.
IV. Its growth target was 5.2% but it achieved 5.7%.
9. Seventh Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was from 1985 to 1990.
II. Objectives of this plan include the establishment of the self-sufficient economy, opportunities for productive employment.
III. For the first time, the private sector got the priority over public sector.
IV. Its growth target was 5.0% but it achieved 6.0%.
Annual Plans: Eighth five Plan could not take place due to the volatile political situation at the centre. So two annual programmes are formed in 1990-91& 1991-92.
10. Eighth Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was from 1992 to 1997.
II. In this plan the top priority was given to development of the human resources i.e. employment, education, and public health.
III. Duing this plan Narasimha Rao Govt. launched New Economic Policy of India.
IV. This plan was successful and got the annual growth rate of 6.8% against the target of 5.6%.
11. Ninth Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was from 1997 to 2002.
II. The main focus of this plan was “growth with justice and equity”.
III. It was launched in the 50th year of the independence of India.
IV. This plan failed to achieve the growth target of 7% and grow only at the rate of 5.6%.
12. Tenth Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was from 2002 to 2007.
II. This plan aims to double the per capita income of India in the next 10 years.
III. It aims to reduce the poverty ratio 15% by 2012.
IV. Its growth target was 8.0% but it achieved only 7.2%.
13. Eleventh Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration was from 2007 to 2012.
II. It was prepared by the C. Rangarajan.
III. Its main theme was “faster and more inclusive growth”
IV. Its growth rate target was 8.1% but it achieved only 7.9%
14. Twelfth Five Year Plan:
I. Its duration is from 2012 to 2017.
II. Its main theme is “Faster, More Inclusive and Sustainable Growth”.
III. Its growth rate target is 8%.
IV. It is the current five year plan of India.